Should obesity be considered a form
Takeaway Many factors play a role in the development of obesity.
Whether obesity should be declared a disease is controversial, and thoughtful arguments have been made on both sides of the issue. Yet the widespread view is that obesity is self inflicted and that it is entirely the individual's responsibility to do something about it, while healthcare professionals seem ill informed on the complexity of obesity and what patients with obesity want. Genetic traits can increase the risk in some people. Curiously, Oliver 42 also relied on Stedman's definition but came to the conclusion opposite from that of Downey 40 and Conway and Rene How is obesity measured? By the agency's own language, some of the things it excludes from the category of disease are diseases, implying that the FDA considers that something may properly be labeled a disease in one context and not in another. When a person does not sleep enough, their body produces ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates appetite. The disease label tends to confer certain benefits, obligations, motivations, and legal considerations in our society. Hence, operational definitions of obesity may also need to vary as a function of these factors even if the conceptual definition remains constant. Necessarily, our utilitarian analysis was speculative. This was not true for centuries and eons. This has proven difficult as far as obesity is concerned. Waist circumference Having a larger amount of abdominal fat relative to the rest of the body causes a greater risk of health complications. We argue that this is the most appropriate approach and use it to form the basis of our conclusion. What is obesity?
However, those that have a genetic predisposition may find it harder to maintain a healthy weight. After feeding rats a percent fructose solution for 14 days, the scientists noted that their metabolism was starting to change.
Under such conditions, obesity is perceived by the physiologist as a necessary biological adaptation rather than a disease. In the evolutionary function view, disease occurs when an organ is not performing the job that allowed it to evolve via natural selection.
Types of obesity
What causes obesity? An interruption, cessation, or disorder of body functions, systems, or organs. Although this may be true, it is not likely that that this is the sole or primary means by which obesity adversely affects health, function, and longevity. We turn to the fourth criterion of Heshka and Allison 39 i. Experts debate the issue. So this definition is highly fluid and we must be aware of it, and what is a natural state today may not be regarded as a natural state in the near future. Thus, the evolutionary approach permits an interesting array of perspectives and does not offer a clear path by which obesity may be classified as a disease. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Downey requires that two of three criteria be met, whereas Heshka and Allison and the AMA require all criteria to be met, an increase in the burden of proof.
Tautological interpretation that makes elements superfluous thereby vitiates the scientific approach to evaluating obesity as a disease. The struggle is not solved by simply adopting the definitions and interpretive approach used by Downey 40 and Conway and Rene 41 on the one hand or by Heshka and Allison 39 and the AMA 44 on the other hand.
This can contribute to obesity.
You can find your waist circumference by measuring your waist just above your hipbones. In contrast, Downey 40referring to Stedman's second definition of a disease—i. Clear and consistent evidence shows that obesity increases the risk of many morbidities and reduces both the quality and the quantity of life 345.
Related coverage. What is a disease? This increase has occurred in virtually every age, race, and sex group These include physical, psychological, and genetic causes.
We turn to the fourth criterion of Heshka and Allison 39 i. According to the CDC , a person is at greater risk for obesity-related conditions when their waist circumference is more than 40 inches for a man and 35 inches for a nonpregnant woman. Prominent obesity experts have offered the opinion that it is indeed warranted, but equally prominent although fewer obesity experts have disagreed. Waist circumference Having a larger amount of abdominal fat relative to the rest of the body causes a greater risk of health complications. Application of the approach involves two simple steps: identifying an authoritative body and determining its stated position on whether obesity is or should be considered a disease. Share on Pinterest Obesity is a complicated public health issue that medical experts are now acknowledging has multiple factors. The process of developing this document The Executive Committee of TOS wished to have a formal position statement on whether obesity is justifiably called and should be declared a disease and commissioned this white paper as a critical evaluation of relevant arguments and evidence. This further reinforces the point that existing dictionary definitions of disease seem ill suited to capturing entities that society clearly recognizes as disease and also to excluding things clearly not recognized as diseases and the subsequent conclusion that entities do not come to be classified or not classified as disease on the basis of comparing facts known about the entities with accepted defining criteria of diseases. Strict application of Downey's definition and approach would result in the labeling of any characteristic or habit that causes increased risk of morbidity or mortality as a disease, including being male, being over age 40, riding a motorcycle without a helmet, not sleeping 6—8 hours per day, and not regularly consuming moderate amounts of alcohol. The activity of the FTO gene might impact a person's chances of having obesity because it affects the amounts of ghrelin a person has. The manufacturers of dietary supplements would not be allowed to make statements that a dietary supplement product could be used to diagnose, treat, prevent, cure, or mitigate a disease but could make claims about the product's effects on the structure or function of the body. What can we conclude if we take this approach strictly?
based on 20 review